The Era of Personalized Cancer Therapeutics

  Isabel Levy & Seema Bachoo Glossary Adoptive T cell transfer, Allosteric site, Clonal expansion, CRISPR-Cas9, DNA, DNA sequencing, EGFR, ‘Gain-of-function’ mutation, Genome, Genomic Instability, GTPase, GDP, GTP, Kinase, ‘Loss-of-function’ mutation, MAPK signaling pathway, Mutation, Oncogene/Proto-oncogene,  Personalized Cancer Medicine, PI3K pathway, RAS, TP53 gene, Tumor suppressor gene   Background Cancer: a disease of the genome […]

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT): past to present and beyond

Aaron Logsdon   Abbreviations BBB, Blood brain barrier; DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; DRC, the Democratic Republic of the Congo; HAT, Human African Trypanosomiasis; NECT, nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy; NTD, neglected tropical disease; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; VSG, variant surface glycoprotein   Glossary antigen, antigenic variation, arsenic, asymptomatic, clinical trial, dementia, drug, drug resistance, energy metabolism, endemic, epidemic, fever, host, […]

The use of Stem Cells in Modern Medicine

Lovisa Lindquist   Abbreviations CNS, central nervous system; ESC, embryonic stem cell; FDA, Food & drug administration; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; ICM, inner cell mass; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell; IVF, in vitro fertilization; MS, multiple sclerosis; MSC, mesenchymal stem cells; SC, stem cell Glossary Adipose tissue, Amniotic sac, Antigen, Autoimmune […]

What is phage therapy and could it be used as an alternative to antibiotics?

  Sam Jarada   Glossary bactericidal, bacteriostatic, capsid, cell wall, DNA gyrase, dosage, dysentery, efficacy, enzyme, microbiome, lipid, lysis, lytic, nucleic acid, pathogenic, placebo, RNA, transcription, translation Introduction Phage therapy is a type of treatment that makes use of bacteriophages (phages), (a type of virus that only infect bacteria). Phages are composed of a nucleic […]

What is CAR-T cell therapy?

Seema Bachoo   Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that makes use of a patient’s own immune system to target and destroy cancer cells, with the aim of eliminating cancer from the body. There are several different types of immunotherapies. Cytokine-based immunotherapies harness the power of cytokines, which are soluble proteins that stimulate and […]

How immunotherapy can improve colorectal cancer prognosis

Aaron Logsdon   Abbreviations CAR, chimeric antigen receptor; CAR-T, chimeric antigen receptor T lymphocyte therapy; CRC, colorectal cancer; DCR, disease control rate; dMMR, mismatch repair-deficient; FDA, US Food and Drug Administration; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibition; MMR, mismatch repair genes; MSI-H, high microsatellite instability; MSS, microsatellite stable; OR, objective response; pMMR, mismatch repair proficient; Treg, T […]